A Detailed Guide for Cracking Ethical Hacking Interview in 2022
Does a masked man wearing a hoodie in a dark room, eerily staring at endless green code flowing on a screen come to mind when you hear the word ‘hacker’? You’re not the only one. That’s the typical image of malicious hackers. However, angelic hackers exist too! They are called ethical hackers and there's plenty you got to know about them!
In this blog, we will talk about how you can pave a career in the cybersecurity industry as an ethical hacker.
Advanced Introduction of Ethical Hacking
Fighting off the bad guys? No, it's more complicated than that. Hacking ethically involves scanning computers or networks for vulnerabilities as well as potential threats. The ethical hacker spots and analyzes security weaknesses in a computer system, web application, or network and informs the organization of these vulnerabilities.
In the age of cybersecurity, ethical hacking has emerged as an essential protocol employed and contracted by companies and government agencies worldwide!
How to Pursue a Career in Ethical Hacking
|Path 1||Path 2|
|Stream- Pass Class XII in Science stream with IT/Computer Science/ Similar||Stream- Pass Class XII in Science stream with IT/Computer Science/ Similar|
|You would need to complete a BSc in computer science, a BCA, or a BA in an IT-related field for 3 to 4 years||Consider pursuing ethical hacking certification courses in CEH, CCNA, SCNS, CPTE, CISSP)|
|Consider pursuing ethical hacking certification courses in CEH, CCNA, SCNS, CPTE, CISSP)|
Career & Job Opportunities
With increasing cybercrimes every day, there is a need for better cybersecurity, making ethical hacking a promising career. Some ethical hacking career options are:
1. Government Jobs: Cyber security is a growing concern for governments and private companies, which is why they seek out ethical hackers. People can also earn money by working as freelancers for multiple companies.
2. Network Security Engineers: A Network Security Engineer identifies existing issues in the network security hardware and software and builds safeguards to prevent future cyber threats like bugs, malware, and hacking.
3. Network Security Administrator: They create or update the security infrastructure and monitor any kind of suspicious activity to ensure that the network is free from any security threats or incidents.
4. Penetration Tester: Pen testers perform simulated cyberattacks to identify possible loopholes in the system that may lead to cyber accidents and work with the organization to improve the security system.
5. Security Consultants: They evaluate the existing cybersecurity infrastructure of an organization and implement a better defense system that prevents cyber threats.
The amount of cybercrime is increasing, which is motivating companies to engage ethical hackers and penetration testers to keep ahead of malicious hackers. Certified Ethical Hackers typically earn more than $100,000 a year per PayScale, so it is a lucrative career option as well as a rewarding one!
Who Is It For?
Top 50 Interview Questions/Answers for Ethical Hackers (2022)
A good understanding of ethical hacking interview questions will help you build a successful career in cybersecurity. Here are some:
The following (Ethical hacking interview questions) CEH questions and answers cover the basics Of Ethical Hacking:
1. Define ethical hacking.
Some hobbyist hackers started using this term to identify vulnerabilities in networks when they helped organizations. It is also called Whitehat hacking. Its main goal is to find and exploit security vulnerabilities in the target system and ethically report these loopholes to the responsible organizations. People who do ethical hacking are called ethical hackers or white hat hackers.
2. Why are ethical hackers in such high demand?
In this growing digital world everyone is using the internet, almost every company uses the internet to give their services to users like we can book flights, trains, movie tickets online just by visiting a single website or by downloading an app into our phone. So this growing world of the internet has become a target of some bad people who are called “Black hat hackers”, they hack into companies and steal the user's data and other confidential information’s, to protect those data from being stolen organization’s hire ethical hackers, however, there is lack of security professionals in this domain and bad people continuously banging onto the door’s of organizations or breaking into it. That’s why there is a high demand for ethical hackers.
3. Define black hat hackers.
Black hat hackers are those who break into an organization’s networks and steal confidential information’s and leak them into the internet. They do this for money, personal reasons, political agenda, etc.
4. What are the differences between grey hat hackers and black hat hackers?
Gray hat hackers are those who do both things white hat hacking and black hat hacking, they do black hat stuff for personal reasons or money.
Black hat hackers are those who do illegal things such as breaking into systems and breaching the security of organizations.
5. Define white hat hackers.
They focus on strengthening security systems by using ethical hacking techniques. The white hat hackers are never intended to cause harm. The majority of ethical hacker interview questions pertain to white hat hackers when you apply for an ethical hacker position.
6. Define SQL Injection.
An SQL injection is a type of injection attack’s where an attacker can interact with the backend database by using SQL commands ( SQL is a language widely used by applications to interact with the database. It stands for “Structured Query Language”). It arises when an application is not handling user input in the proper attacker and exploits this by giving malicious SQL commands from the input field.
7. Define Brute Force Attack.
Brute Force is an attack used by attackers to try every combination like they use this to find valid login creds of any website. There are two types of brute force attacks – 1) Dictionary attack and 2) Pure brute force attack.
8. Another kind of hacker exists, too?
Apart from White, black, and gray hat hackers, there are some other hackers –
1. Script Kiddies
2. Green hat hackers
3. Blue hat hackers
4. Red hat hackers
5. Malicious insider hacker
7. Elite hackers
8. Gaming hacker
9. Scale hacker
9. Which types of hacking are there?
The first to evolve was computer hacking or system hacking. Today, it is still happening. We started to see hacks like email hacking, website hacking, and network hacking as we moved towards a more digital world. Hackers trying to infiltrate the network try to steal some sensitive data from the website, while hackers attacking the server try to gain access to the webserver.
10. Why is Cross-Site Scripting a problem?
11. Define phishing attacks.
It is a widely used attack by hackers, in this attack an attacker can construct a fake page like a Facebook login page which looks the same as the original after creating a page they send that page to the victim by email or any other communication media, they use some juicy word phrases i.e. you have received a friend request from a girl or something like that, after reading the email if the user clicked on that link and login with their login creds, their login creds will send to attacker. This is called a phishing attack.
12. Define social engineering.
Social engineering is a technique that exploits human error to obtain personal information. It is also called human hacking. By employing social engineering techniques, hackers can obtain sensitive and personal information from their victims.
13. What is the ethical hacker's workflow?
In the process of hacking, five stages are involved. These include:
Reconnaissance: This is the first step in hacking, we try to gather information as much as possible about the target.
Scanning: In this step, we scan the target to find open ports, running services, and vulnerabilities in that system.
Obtaining access: In this step, we try to exploit the vulnerabilities that we found in step 2 and get access to the system.
Keeping access open: After getting access to the system we install backdoor’s to maintain our access.
Getting track clear: In the last step we clear all the tracks that we used to get into the system.
14. Define reconnaissance.
The goal here is to gather all the information about the system so we can understand it better. You can discover open ports and access points as well as determine network range.
15. What are the two types of reconnaissance?
The active type is where the hacker is permitted to interact with the system and the passive type is where the hacker has no connection to the system.
16. Getting access is an ethical hacker's goal, but how does one do that?
The ethical hacker implements the tools and techniques that he learned in the reconnaissance and scanning phase. At this stage, he can gain unauthorized access, and this is called gaining access.
17. How do hackers keep access open?
To maintain the access, hackers use a backdoor, a backdoor is a malware that works on TCP/IP protocol, it sends a connection request to their admin and after a successful connection, an attacker can have full access to the target system.
18. How important is the clearing of tracks?
Hackers should avoid leaving a trail behind them. So no one can trace him how they entered into the system. To do this, you should delete past emails, server logs, uninstall apps, and more.
19. Define scanning.
In this step, we scan the target to find open ports, running services, and vulnerabilities in that system. There are three types of scanning – network scanning, port scanning, and vulnerability scanning.
20. Define virus.
A virus is a type of malware that is designed to spread from device to device, it can harm the computer file systems. It is not self replicated
21. Define worm.
A worm is the same as a virus, however, it can self replicated
22. A worm differs from a virus in what way?
Viruses and worms differ in primarily the fact that the former requires a functioning host program.
23. Define Trojan.
It is malicious software that looks legitimate but can take control of your computer system. It can be bound with any legitimate software.
24. Define trojan-backdoor.
Trojan backdoors are malicious software programs designed to grant unwanted access to the target system. Once a trojan gains a foothold in a system it will automatically add itself to the computer startup routine so that rebooting the computer will not permanently end the malicious process.
25. Define Trojan-Ransom.
Trojan programs such as this modify and encrypt sensitive files. To decrypt or unlock the data, a ransom is required. It is a form of malware that captures some important information about a computer system or a computer network.
26. Define Trojan-Droppers.
Hackers use it to attack systems and drop malware into them. Most antivirus software cannot detect droppers. Trojan-Dropper is a program that is designed to secretly install malicious files and programs to the victim's system without getting noticed.
27. Define Trojan-IM.
An automated program that targets instant messaging applications such as Skype to access the login credentials. It steals your logins and passwords on IM platforms.
28. Define Rootkits.
Unauthorized access to a computer system is made possible through a set of software tools called rootkits. It is a type of malware designed to give hackers access to and control over the target device.
29. Define Trojan-DDoS.
A Trojan-DDoS is a particular malware that negatively affects web addresses. and it's designed to conduct a Dos attack from an infected computer on a pre-defined address.
30. How is hashing done?
This is achieved by generating a string of text using a complex mathematical function. To keep the data accurate, the string of text is used. In hashing large keys are converted into small keys by using hash functions.
31. Define encryption.
Encryption is the process of using an algorithm to transform plain text into cipher text to ensure that sensitive data remains unreadable to unauthorized users. An encoded message can only be read by those who have the key.
32. What are the differences between hashing and encryption?
Encryption is a two-way process, so it differs from a one-way process that is hashing. Encryption is Reversible but hashing Irreversible. Encryption has variable length but hashing has fixed length.
33. Define exploitation.
A hacker can exploit a program or script to take over a system. It's designed to find and take advantage of a security flaw or vulnerability in an application or computer system, typically for malicious purposes such as installing malware.
34. How is exploitation done?
To identify vulnerable areas, vulnerability scanners are used.
35. Define enumeration.
Enumeration is defined as a process that establishes an active connection to the target host to discover potential attack vectors in the system, and the same can be used for further exploitation of the system.
It is known as enumeration to get a list of users or networks.
36. How is enumeration done?
It is done by gathering:
1. Names of users and groups and machines
2. Shared network resources
3. Programs installed
The Following Cover Advanced-Level Questions And Answers Of Ethical Hacking:
37. Define defacement.
Defacement is a form of vandalism, in which a website is marked by hackers or crackers. Website Defacement is an attack on a website that changes the visual appearance of the site or a webpage. An attack on a web page using SQL injection.
38. How does defacement do?
A website may appear to have defaced data after the query has been executed. Hackers deface a website by gaining unauthorized access to any environment.
39. Define footprinting.
It means gathering information about a target, Get as much information about a target as possible through the attack. It's divided basically into two types--
1. Active footprinting.
2. Passive footprinting.
40. What does footprinting collect?
Most commonly, IP addresses, VPN, URLs, email ids, passwords, and server configurations are collected.
41. How is footprinting classified?
Footprinting data is gathered through both active and passive methods. The methods for connecting to the target system differ.
Source-- Social Media. Websites. Google. Social Engineering.
42. Define fingerprinting.
Attackers need to identify the kinds of operating systems that they need to penetrate before deploying malware or malicious software.
43. What are other elements of fingerprinting?
44. Define active fingerprinting.
Active fingerprinting is defined as the process of actively interacting with the target entity, either by using social means, such as calling or emailing. or technical means, such as scanning. The target machine receives specially crafted packets as part of active fingerprinting.
45. Define passive fingerprinting.
This style of fingerprinting does not stiffer traces are sent by a remote system to the one under attack. but relies on sniffing techniques to analyze the information sent in normal network traffic.
46. Define sniffing.
Information passing through a network is monitored in this way. In this way, hackers capture sensitive data. It's divided basically into two types--
1. Active sniffing.
2. Passive sniffing.
47. Define active sniffing.
A hacker can lock, monitor, and edit traffic and data using this method. These are the Active sniffing techniques --
1. MAC Flooding.
2. DHCP Attacks.
3. DNS Poisoning.
4. ARP Poisoning.
5. Spoofing Attacks.
48. Define passive sniffing.
Information can be locked using this technique. A network segment then has access to this information, and it can be utilized. Passive sniffing allows listening only, It works with the Hub device.
49. Examples of sniffing tools.
2. SolarWinds Network Packet Sniffer
4. Paessler PRTG
50. Examples of ethical hacking tools.
Preparation is an absolute MUST before an interview. If you have any interviews for a post in ethical hacking, these ethical hacking interview questions are all you need!
Types of Ethical Hacking
Almost every component of a system can be hacked, so ethical hacking practices vary based on it. A list of ethical hacking practices is listed below.
- Web Application Hacking
2. System Hacking
3. Web Server Hacking
4. Hacking Wireless Networks
5. Social Engineering
Essential Tools Every Ethical Hacker Should Know
Let's dive into the ethical hacking community and explore the most popular tools available.
1. Nmap (Network Mapper)
This command-line security tool is open-source and free. This method finds and enumerates the hosts and services on a network. The tool is commonly used to conduct security audits or penetration tests.
The Wireshark network packet analyzer is an open-source, free tool for capturing and analyzing real-time network traffic. Ethical hackers consider it one of the most useful tools for network security. Wireshark captures and displays network traffic as it travels across your computer.
Maltego renders directed graphs for linking analysis as an interactive data mining tool. An online investigation tool that links information from different sources across the Internet is used for constructing relationships between the pieces of data it finds. The tool mines the Internet for data makes sense of the data and helps connect the dots of the information it finds.
Roles & Responsibilities of Ethical Hackers [2022 Updated]
An ethical hacker is often mistaken for someone who only tests and breaches systems and applications. Ethical hackers are responsible for a lot more than this.
1. Exploiting reconnaissance tools like Nessus and NMAP to scan open and closed ports,
2. Applying social engineering methodologies,
3. Conducting a rigorous vulnerability analysis on patch releases,
4. Depending on the environment, he or she may try to circumvent IDS (Intrusion Detection Systems), IPS (Intrusion Prevention Systems), honeypots, and firewalls.
5. Ethical hackers can also sniff networks, bypass and crack wireless encryption, and hijack web servers and web applications
To emulate black hat hacking operations, ethical hackers analyze an organization's systems and examine its defense protocols. When the organization isn't already responding well to these situations, it is his job to ensure they do so.
How to Get Experience in Ethical Hacking [2022 updated]
Being an ethical hacker requires the cultivation of patience. It's not realistic to expect both an exceptional job and a large salary right away, but both can be achieved within a short period!
1. Making a Beginning
An ethical hacker often gets their start by studying computer science. There are also options for achieving A+ (CompTIA), Network+ or CCNA certifications. You may also need to give exams for obtaining these certifications.
2. Assisting Networks
The next step in your career will be in-network support after you get your qualification. Among the things, you will do are monitor and update your security programs, install security software, and test for weaknesses. To secure a position as a network engineer, you should gain experience in the area of network security.
3. Engineering Networking
Working in network support can lead to a salary of $60,000-65,000. This will involve more than just maintaining networks, but planning and designing them, too! From now on, you should focus more on security in your journey to becoming an ethical hacker. From now on, you should focus more on security in your journey to becoming an ethical hacker. The time is now when you should work toward a security certification, like Security+, CISSP, or TICSA, for example.
4. Working in IT Security
To become an ethical hacker, you must now focus on Information Security for the first time. This role pays a median salary of $69,000. To gain hands-on experience in these tools, the most important aspect of this role is penetration testing. The International Council of Electronic Commerce Consultants (the EC Council) offers a Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH) certification. At this point in your career, you should strive to earn this certification. Upon receiving this certification, you will be able to market yourself as an ethical hacker to potential clients!
The Bottom Line
Hacking attacks on high-profile companies are extremely common, and many of those companies have suffered significant losses because of cyberwarfare. On a global scale, IT security spending today exceeds a trillion dollars. An army of white-hat hackers is the best way to defend against black-hat hackers.
Ethical hackers are in high demand at present and are expected to grow in the future. Especially if they own and run their own penetration testing companies or consultancies, experienced ethical hackers can earn over $120,000 per year! You're ready to become an ethical hacker, aren't you?